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In his early teens, he spent some time with the Bedouin in the desert of Saudi Arabia. [8][page needed]. After I had been wounded and decorated by Franco himself, I became known as 'the English-decorated-by-Franco' and all sorts of doors opened to me. [10][page needed]. Kim Philby’s closest friend, Nicholas Elliott, was always struck by the “loyalty and affection” he inspired in women. [45] J. Edgar Hoover complained that Burgess used British Embassy automobiles to avoid arrest when he cruised Washington in pursuit of homosexual encounters. A similar lapse occurred with a report from the Imperial Japanese Embassy in Moscow sent to Tokyo. [58], In Lebanon, Philby at first lived in Mahalla Jamil, his father's large household located in the village of Ajaltoun, just outside Beirut. Born in British India, Philby was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge. It was published by Casterman in 2015, One of the earliest appearances of Philby as a character in fiction was in the 1974, In the 1987 adaptation of the novel, also named, Philby appears as one of the central antagonists in, Under the cover name of 'Mowgli' Philby appears in, Philby was the inspiration for the character of British intelligence officer Archibald "Arch" Cummings in the 2005 film, The song "Angleton", by Russian indie rock band. Philby was also responsible for liaising with the CIA and promoting "more aggressive Anglo-American intelligence operations". Shortly afterward, Philby was moved to the job as chief SIS representative in Washington, D.C., with his family. As a result of this accident, Philby, who was well-liked by the Nationalist forces whose victories he trumpeted, was awarded the Red Cross of Military Merit by Franco on 2 March 1938. His own comment was "I do not say that people were happy under the regime but the CIA underestimated the degree of control that the Authorities had over the country. It was ten years before he was given a minor role in the training of KGB recruits. She noted that they produced an extraordinary wealth of information on German war plans but next to nothing on the repeated question of British penetration of Soviet intelligence in either London or Moscow. The matchmaker was his … "[46], Burgess's presence was problematic for Philby, yet it was potentially dangerous for Philby to leave him unsupervised. Larger numbers were landed by sea and air under Operation Valuable, which continued until 1951, increasingly under the influence of the newly formed CIA. 149", "Up on the Catwalk Lyrics – Simple Minds", Annotated bibliography of the Philby Affair, File release: Cold War Cambridge spies Burgess and Maclean, "Kim Philby: The Spy Who Loved Me" by Charlotte Philby, 12th June 2018,, British intelligence personnel who defected to the Soviet Union, Officers of the Order of the British Empire, People educated at Westminster School, London, People stripped of a British Commonwealth honour, Recipients of the Order of Friendship of Peoples, Recipients of the Order of the Red Banner, World War II spies for the United Kingdom, People granted political asylum in the Soviet Union, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from June 2020, Articles needing additional references from June 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles with trivia sections from October 2019, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Belgian comic authors Olivier Neuray and Valerie Lemaire wrote a series of three historical comics entitled "Les Cinq de Cambridge" involving Kim Philby. Philby claimed to have overheard discussion of this by chance and sent a report to his controller. I think that he was of Czech origin; about 5 ft 7in, stout, with blue eyes and light curly hair. The organization was one of several fronts operated by German Communist Willi Münzenberg, a member of the Reichstag who had fled to France in 1933. Mikhail Lyubimov, his closest KGB contact, explained that this was to guard his safety, but later admitted that the real reason was the KGB's fear that Philby would return to London. Kim Philby and journalist Phillip Knightly in Moscow in January 1988 This gallery is from Storyville — The Spy Who Went into the Cold: Kim Philby, Soviet Super Spy Born in 1946, Dudley ‘Tommy’ Philby is the third of Kim’s five children with his second of four wives, Aileen Furse Philby. There, he underwent MI5 interrogation aimed at ascertaining whether he had acted as a "third man" in Burgess and Maclean's spy ring. His wife Aileen died in December 1957 and he married Eleanor Brewer (former wife of Sam Pope Brewer in 1959. By the time he arrived in Turkey, three weeks later, Volkov had been removed to Moscow[37]. [60], In 1961, Anatoliy Golitsyn, a major in the First Chief Directorate of the KGB, defected to the United States from his diplomatic post in Helsinki. [81], Philby found work in the early 1970s in the KGB's Active Measures Department churning out fabricated documents. Please, The subscription details associated with this account need to be updated. In 1936 he began working at a trade magazine, the Anglo-Russian Trade Gazette, as editor. While working in Section Five, Philby had become acquainted with James Jesus Angleton, a young American counter-intelligence officer working in liaison with SIS in London. "[7], Upon Philby's graduation, Maurice Dobb, a fellow of King's College, Cambridge and tutor in Economics, introduced him to the World Federation for the Relief of the Victims of German Fascism in Paris. Bruce Page, David Leitch and Phillip Knightley, Anthony Cave Brown, 'Treason in the Blood: H. St. John Philby, Kim Philby, and the Spy Case of the Century. [10][page needed], A more serious incident occurred in August 1945, when Konstantin Volkov, an NKVD agent and vice-consul in Istanbul, requested political asylum in Britain for himself and his wife. [3], On the evening of 23 January 1963, Philby vanished from Beirut, failing to meet his wife for a dinner party at the home of Glencairn Balfour Paul, First Secretary at the British Embassy. He also delivered clothes and money to refugees from the Nazis. You can give that to the International Organisation for Aid for Revolutionaries. [citation needed], The intervention of Philby in the affair and the subsequent capture of Volkov by the Soviets might have seriously compromised Philby's position. He testified before the Dies Committee (later to become the House Un-American Activities Committee) regarding Soviet espionage within the United States. His office oversaw a large amount of urgent and top-secret communications between the United States and London. Philby’s wife, Edith, was a Viennese-born friend of Soviet agent Edith Hart – who first approached Philby about the possibility of working for the Soviets in the early 1930s. He became a member of the Anglo-German Fellowship, an organization aiming at rebuilding and supporting a friendly relationship between Germany and the United Kingdom. Philby occupied himself by writing his memoirs, which were finally published in the UK in 1968 under the title My Silent War; it was not published in the Soviet Union until 1980. In Vienna, working to aid refugees from Nazi Germany, Philby met and fell in love with Litzi Friedmann (born Alice Kohlmann), a young Austrian Communist of Hungarian Jewish origins. During the early years of the Cold War, Philby handed intelligence to the USSR. Kim Philby died in Moscow in May 1988. From 1952, Philby struggled to find work as a journalist, eventually – in August 1954 – accepting a position with a diplomatic newsletter called the Fleet Street Letter. Contained in the traffic (intercepted and decrypted as part of the Venona project) was information that documents had been sent to Moscow from the British Embassy in Washington. In 1948, troubled by the heavy drinking and frequent depressions that had become a feature of her husband's life in Istanbul, she experienced a breakdown of this nature, staging an accident and injecting herself with urine and insulin to cause skin disfigurations. To protect his family, still living in the USSR, he said nothing about Philby, an agreement Stalin respected. [4], Nicknamed "Kim" after the boy-spy in Rudyard Kipling's novel Kim,[3] Philby attended Aldro preparatory school, an all-boys school located in Shackleford near Godalming in Surrey, United Kingdom. His arrest led to others: Harry Gold, a courier with whom Fuchs had worked, David Greenglass, and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. Please reorganize this content to explain the subject's impact on popular culture, Bruce Page, David Leitch, Philip Knightley (1968). This reading of history is substantially but not wholly based on Elizabeth Monroe’s book Philby of Arabia (London: Quartet Books, 1973). [68][page needed], It was not until 1 July 1963 that Philby's flight to Moscow was officially confirmed. The rules of engagement were established at the start. In January 1963, having finally been unmasked as a Soviet agent, Philby defected to Moscow, where he lived out his life until his death in 1988. [citation needed], Elena Modrzhinskaya at GUGB headquarters in Moscow assessed all material from the Cambridge Five. After leaving Cambridge, Philby worked as a journalist and covered the Spanish Civil War and the Battle of France. In Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Turkish intelligence took them to a border crossing into Georgia but soon afterwards shots were heard. [19] However, such an act was never a real possibility; upon debriefing Philby in London on 24 May 1937, Maly wrote to the NKVD, "Though devoted and ready to sacrifice himself, [Philby] does not possess the physical courage and other qualities necessary for this [assassination] attempt."[19]. [58] He and Eleanor divorced and she departed Moscow in May 1965. [59] From 1960, Philby's formerly marginal work as a journalist became more substantial and he frequently travelled throughout the Middle East, including Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait and Yemen. The NKVD received the same report from Richard Sorge but with an extra paragraph claiming that Hitler might seek a separate peace with the Soviet Union. When visiting Paris after the war, he was shocked to discover that the address that he used for Mlle Dupont was that of the Soviet Embassy. [45] His dissolution had a troubling effect on Philby; the morning after a particularly disastrous and drunken party, a guest returning to collect his car heard voices upstairs and found "Kim and Guy in the bedroom drinking champagne. He served as both an NKVD and KGB operative. In 1964, Eleanor returned to the United States to renew her passport and to see her daughter. He hated London, adored Paris, and spoke of it with deeply loving affection. His wife joined him in Moscow in 1964 but left a year later; he later married a young Russian writer. I discovered much later from a photograph in MI5 files that the name he went by was Arnold Deutsch. [10][page needed], Philby provided Stalin with advance warning of Operation Barbarossa and of the Japanese intention to strike into southeast Asia instead of attacking the USSR as Hitler had urged. Born in Ambala, Punjab, British India, Philby was the son of Dora Johnston and St John Philby, an author, Arabist and explorer. With the exception of Kim Philby’s references to his wife, his father, and his once best friend, Nicholas Elliott, all the quoted material is taken from the book. At this point, however, Philby and Litzi separated. Robert Wallace, H. Keith Melton, Henry R. Schlesinger. In 1968 she returned to Maclean. However, Volkov's defection had been discussed with the British Embassy in Ankara on telephones which turned out to have been tapped by Soviet intelligence. But the resident (Russian term for spymaster) in France, probably Pierre at this time, suggested to Moscow that he suspected Philby's motives. [69] On 30 July Soviet officials announced that they had granted him political asylum in the USSR, along with Soviet citizenship. No connection with Philby was made at the time, and Krivitsky was found shot in a Washington hotel room the following year. In 1971, Philby married Rufina Pukhova, a Russo-Polish woman twenty years his junior, with whom he lived until his death in 1988.[89]. [38], A month later Igor Gouzenko, a cipher clerk in Ottawa, took political asylum in Canada and gave the Royal Canadian Mounted Police names of agents operating within the British Empire that were known to him. Solomon introduced Philby to the woman who would become Philby's second wife, Aileen Furse. [18] Maly was one of the Soviet Union's most powerful and influential illegal controllers and recruiters. Philby told the British, after a direct question to Franco, that German troops would never be permitted to cross Spain to attack Gibraltar. [34][35] Charles Arnold-Baker, an officer of German birth (born Wolfgang von Blumenthal) working for Richard Gatty in Belgium and later transferred to the Norwegian/Swedish border, voiced many suspicions of Philby and Philby's intentions but was ignored time and time again. Following Aileen Philby's death in 1957 and Eleanor's subsequent divorce from Brewer, Philby and Eleanor were married in London in 1959 and set up house together in Beirut. [10][page needed], By September 1941, Philby began working for Section Five of MI6, a section responsible for offensive counter-intelligence. JOHN DAVID PHILBY. She lived separately from Philby, settling with their children in Crowborough while he lived first in London and later in Beirut. He took a job at a monthly magazine, the World Review of Reviews, for which he wrote a large number of articles and letters (sometimes under a variety of pseudonyms) and occasionally served as "acting editor. [62] She recalled returning home to Beirut from a sight-seeing trip in Jordan to find Philby "hopelessly drunk and incoherent with grief on the terrace of the flat," mourning the death of a little pet fox which had fallen from the balcony. Many other books and films have been based on his life: John le Carré's novel (also a BBC television mini-series) Tinker, Tailor, Soldier, Spy (1974) focuses on the hunt for a Soviet agent patterned after Philby. Additionally, Volkov had insisted that all written communications about him take place by bag rather than by telegraph, causing a delay in reaction that might plausibly have given the Soviets time to uncover his plans. 894646. Philby died of heart failure in Moscow in 1988. In June 1934, Deutsch recruited him to the Soviet intelligence services. Was clearly believed to be a Soviet spy after Soviet defector Anatoli Golytsin named him. [3], Secret files released to the National Archives in late 2020 indicated that the government had intentionally conducted a campaign to keep Kim Philby's spying confidential "to minimise political embarrassment" and prevented the publication of his memoirs, according to a report by The Guardian. A colossus who humbled the mighty: From Thalidomide to the exposure of Kim Philby, his campaigns against injustice changed the world. From April 1950, Maclean had been the prime suspect in the investigation into the Embassy leak. [10][page needed] On a short trip back from Spain, Philby tried to recruit Flora Solomon as a Soviet agent; she was the daughter of a Russian banker and gold dealer, a relative of the Rothschilds, and wife of a London stockbroker. Angleton, later chief of the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA) Counterintelligence Staff, became suspicious of Philby when he failed to pass on information relating to a British agent executed by the Gestapo in Germany. I questioned her about it but she would give me no details. The film recounts Philby's love affair and marriage to Eleanor Brewer during his time in Beirut, and his eventual defection to the Soviet Union in late January 1963, though the characters based on Philby and Brewer have different names. On September 3 1939, Soviet spy Kim Philby met his future wife. In February 1934, Philby married Litzi Friedmann, an Austrian Jewish communist whom he had met in Vienna. David Pryce-Jones: October 2004: The New Criterion published by the Foundation for Cultural Review, New York, a nonprofit public foundation as described in Section 501 (c) (3) of the Internal Revenue Code, London Gazette Issue 43735 published on 10 August 1965. p. 1. Carr described himself as a civil servant but was actually a spy working for MI6 with Kim Philby and Graham Greene. "[65] Prompted by Elliott's accusations, Philby confirmed the charges of espionage and described his intelligence activities on behalf of the Soviets. After studying Oriental languages at the University of Cambridge, he was posted to Lahore in the Punjab in 1908, acquiring fluency in Urdu, Punjabi, Baluchi, Persian and eventually Arabic. His controller in Paris, the Latvian Ozolin-Haskins (code name Pierre), was shot in Moscow in 1937 during Stalin's purge. He studied history and economics May 1951 the Imperial Japanese Embassy in Washington and served as for! 1967 when Philby granted an interview to Murray Sayle of the CIA revelations of Soviet agents American! Removed to Moscow [ 37 ] last edited on 9 January 2021, at 16:40 Dick White, only transferred. Was pregnant with their fourth child, Miranda or US Department of State documents Philby! 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