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A friend and disciple of the philosophers of the French Enlightenment, Catherine invited Denis Diderot, the encyclopaedist, to become Alexander’s private tutor. On March 13, 1881 Alexander’s father, Alexander II, was assassinated by members of the terrorist organization Narodnaya Volya. Serfdom was a continuing burden on the Russians. Alexander I, son of Paul I, became Tsar of Russia in 1801. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. He was the son of Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich of Russia, the youngest son of Nicholas I of Russia, and Grand Duchess Olga Feodorovna (Cecily of Baden). Very nice biography of a Tsar who started wishing to drastically cut expenses for the army and invest the money in reforming the state and ended up defeating Napoleon. His grandmother, the reigning Empress Catherine II (the Great), took him from his parents and raised him herself to prepare him to succeed her. Finally, the “Western” theoretical education of Alexander and his young friends had not prepared them for gaining a clear vision of the realities of Russian life. In the autumn of 1825 the Emperor sailed to the south of Russia due to the increasing illness of his wife. Get our help and advice choosing services and options to plan a prefect train journey. In 1722, Peter the Great introduced the system of Table of Ranks, a formal list of ranks in Russia’s military, government, and royal court.The establishment of the Table of Ranks was a direct blow to the power of the existing hereditary nobility, or Boyars. As was the case with his father Paul, Alexander was taken from his parents immediately after birth by his grandmother, Catherine the Great, who had him brought up among her Court, away from his mother and father. Alexander ascended to the throne as a result of a brutal palace coup, in which his supporters murdered his father, Paul I. Alexander was aware of the coup, but was convinced that Paul would simply be ousted from the throne, and that his life would be spared. Out of a sincere desire to innovate, Alexander considered a constitution and “the limitation of the autocracy,” but he recoiled before the danger of imposing sudden change on a nobility that rejected it. Paul I’s reign was a dark period for Russia. Plans were drafted for the phased abolition of serfdom, but were not actually implemented, and only the Law on Free Cultivators was published, which allowed the nobles to voluntarily liberate their serfs and grant them land. He was handsome – he had the classic profile of his grandmother – […] Alexander issued an imperial manifesto on April 29, 1881, which ended the constitutional reforms of his father and proclaimed the absolute power of the emperor. Synonyms: Aleksandr Pavlovich; Alexander I; Czar Alexander I. Sept. 17, 2020. His wife died a few months later as the emperor's body was transp… He took part in the Congress of Vienna (1814–15), drove for the establishment of the Holy Alliance (1815), and took part in the conferences that followed. Born: St. Petersburg, 12 (23) December 1777Died: Taganrog, 19 November (1 December) 1825Reigned: 1801-1825. Moreover, he was a visionary who could not transform his dreams into reality. Catherine prepared her grandson to become heir to the throne, and planned to transfer power directly to him, bypassing his father, her estranged son, Paul. Ascending the throne, Alexander's first manifesto promised that he would govern the country according to the principles of his grandmother, Catherine the Great. After the darkness into which Paul had plunged Russia, Alexander appeared to his subjects as a radiant dawn. Paul I of Russia was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, on October 1, 1754. Alexander’s education was not continued after he was 16, when his grandmother married him to Princess Louise of Baden-Durlach, who was 14, in 1793. Navigate St. Petersburg’s dining scene and find restaurants to remember. All rights reserved. Alexander greatest achievement was his victory over Napoleon, who had attacked Russia in 1812, and marched with his Grande Armée from France to Moscow, but was then expelled from Russia and later defeated by a coalition of allies, Russia among them. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Alexander received an excellent education: when selecting his tutors, the Empress Catherine consulted with the best minds of the time, in particular with the French Enlightenment philosopher Denis Diderot. Some sources allege that she created the plan to remove Paul from succession altogether. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. To some extent, he was, of course, the representative of forces — intellectual, economic, and political — that were stronger than himself or, indeed, any single individual. He was handsome, strong, pleasant, humane, and full of enthusiasm. Because he would become emperor one day, Alexander was taught many different subjects. The culmination of the reign of Alexander I: Marshal Marmont hands over the keys of Paris to the Russian Emperor. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Alexander-I-emperor-of-Russia, RT Russiapedia - Biography of Alexander I, JewishEncyclopedia.com - Biography of Alexander I, Alexander I - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Alexander I - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). The sudden death of Alexander I, in November 1825 on a trip away from Moscow, plunged Russia’s monarchy into turmoil. Nicholas I was the emperor of Russia from 1825 to 1855 and was known for his autocratic and orthodox policies. Alexander became tsar the next day. Since he was the eldest son of the Tsar, Nicholas was heir to the throne of Russia. Alexander reformed the state administration, creating in 1801 a system of ministries under the direction of a Cabinet of Ministers, and established a legislative advisory body, the State Council, in 1810. Alexander I of Russia was a famous Emperor of Russia, who was born on December 23, 1777. The Alexander I of Russia Study Pack contains: Biographies (1) Alexander, I 912 words, approx. The suddenness and mysteriousness of his death, as well as the memory of those tragic events that brought him to power in 1801, resulted in a persistent folk legend according to which Alexander did not die, but went to live in seclusion as a hermit monk, no longer able to endure the sin of patricide. As an adolescent, Alexander was allowed to visit his father at Gatchina, on the outskirts of St. Petersburg, away from the court. Instance hypernyms: czar; tsar; tzar (a male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917)). 1 Biography; Study Pack. The Russian honorific "czar"—sometimes spelled "tsar"—derives from none other than Julius Caesar, who predated the Russian Empire by 1,500 years.Equivalent to a king or an emperor, the czar was the autocratic, all-powerful ruler of Russia, an institution that … He wanted his reign to be a happy one and dreamed of great and necessary reforms. Catherine had already written the manifesto that deprived her son of his rights and designated her grandson as the heir to the throne, when she died suddenly on November 17 (November 6, Old Style), 1796. Alexander received his military training there under the direction of a tough and rigid officer, Aleksey Arakcheyev, who was faithfully attached to him and whom Alexander loved throughout his life. With four friends, who were of noble families but motivated by liberal ideas—Prince Adam Czartoryski, Count Pavel Stroganov, Count Viktor Kochubey, and Nikolay Novosiltsev—he formed the Private Committee (Neglasny Komitet). Tsar Alexander I became increasingly suspicious of those around him, especially after an attempt was made to kidnap him when he was on his way to the conference in Aachen, Germany. He and Maria Feodorovna were officially crowned and anointed at the Assumption Cathedral in Moscow on 27 May 1883. Alexander was buried in the Cathedral of the Peter and Paul Fortress. Alexander, who knew of it, did not dare to disclose the manifesto, and Pavel became emperor. The plotters had let him in on the secret, assuring him they would not kill his father but would only demand his abdication. 4 pages. Alexander I, Russian in full Aleksandr Pavlovich, (born December 23 [December 12, Old Style], 1777, St. Petersburg, Russia—died December 1 [November 19], 1825, Taganrog), emperor of Russia (1801–25), who alternately fought and befriended Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars but who ultimately (1813–15) helped form the coalition that defeated the emperor of the French. Alexander II, Emperor of Russia. Alexander the Great served as king of Macedonia from 336 to 323 B.C. Alexander I, emperor of Russia (1801–25), who alternately fought and befriended Napoleon I during the Napoleonic Wars but who ultimately helped form the coalition that defeated the emperor of the French. Alexander as a young man Alexander II, the oldest son of Emperor Nicholas I (1796–1855), was born in Moscow, Russia, on April 17, 1818. There, Pavel had created a ridiculous little kingdom where he devoted himself to military exercises and parades. The precocious marriage had been arranged to guarantee descendants to the Romanov dynasty, and it was unhappy from the beginning. At home, Alexander started another wave of reforms. The army swore allegiance to Constantine. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Author of. During his trip he caught a cold which developed into typhus from which he died in the southern city of Taganrog on 19 November (O.S. When he declined, she chose Frédéric-César La Harpe, a Swiss citizen, a republican by conviction, and an excellent educator. Aleksandr Pavlovich was the first child of Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich (later Paul I) and Grand Duchess Maria Fyodorovna, a princess of Württemberg-Montbéliard. Omissions? Catherine II (born Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst; 2 May 1729 in Szczecin – 17 November 1796), most commonly known as Catherine the Great, was Empress of All Russia from 1762 until 1796—the country's longest-ruling female leader. Both sides tried to use Alexander for their own purposes and he was torn emotionally between his grandmothe… Biography: Where did Nicholas II grow up? Alexander and his close advisers corrected many of the injustices of the preceding reign and made many administrative improvements. (1777-1825), Russian Tsar 1801-1825 Alexander I was born in St. Petersburg on 23 December, 1777 and died at Taganrog on 1 December, 1825. The emancipation of the serfs is the most notable reform undertaken by Alexander II of Russia during his reign. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Paul was 46 years old when he was assassinated in St. Petersburg on March 23, 1801. Nicknamed the Russian Sphinx because of his restrained nature and outward aloofness, Alexander suffered under the weight of the crime of patricide, in which he was tangentially involved, for virtually his entire adult life. Blog. Russian officers returning from their European campaigns brought with them ideas of freedom and wanted modernisation. Alexander I (1777-1825) was emperor of Russia from 1801 to 1825. His full given name was Nikolai Aleksandrovich Romanov. Because of his unstable personality, he would become intoxicated by the notion of grand projects, while balking at carrying them out. )/ 1 December 1825. Logo of the Russian Academy of Sciences #4 He introduced the system of Table of Ranks to do away with hereditary nobility. Soon after his birth on December 23, 1777, Alexander was taken from his father, Paul I of Russia, by his grandmother, Catherine the Great, who utterly disliked Paul and did not want him to have any influence on the future emperor. He also took part in the Congress of Vienna (1814–15) and drove for the establishment of the Holy Alliance (1815). Let our meeting and events experts help you organize a superb event in St. Petersburg. The institution of serfdom was, in the tsar’s own words, “a degradation” that kept Russia in a disastrously backward state. Their principal achievement was the initiation of a vast plan for public education, which involved the formation of many schools of different types, institutions for training teachers, and the founding of three new universities. Alexander believed them or, at least, wished to believe that all would go well. He was sidelined for years by his mother, Catherine II, before finally becoming emperor in 1796, after her death. He was mostly known as "Sandro". Need tickets for the Mariinsky, the Hermitage, a football game or any event? 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